Thursday, February 20, 2020
Recruitment and selection - Essay Example Indeed, the recruitment and selection process helps in finding and employing top quality and proficient workers who meet organisational needs and focus on accomplishment of assigned goals and targets (Iles, 2001 p. 134). It should be emphasised that technology only accelerates the production strength but its employees who plan, organise, lead and control business operations. Therefore, there is dire need to implement right recruitment strategies to select right workers at the right time for business growth, survival and sustainability. The paper will first throw light over importance of Human Resource Management followed by importance of recruitment and selection process. The paper will then discuss various recruitment techniques such as internal and external recruitment, consultation from any HR agency, use of job and career fairs, referrals etc. In addition, the paper will provide an explanation on equality and discrimination followed by a discussion on how issues of Equality affect the recruitment and selection process. Finally, the researcher will provide the conclusion to summarise the findings from and shortcomings of current literature. Human Resource Management refers to managing employees and organisational members. Indeed, HRM is also known as personnel management and it plays vital role in success and growth of any business firm. For instance, the first major responsibility of HR professionals is to prepare a top quality workforce that could meet present and future organisational needs as well as could accomplish assigned targets. Hence, if right workers are not inducted then a company may not be able to form an excellent customer base, relationships with partners, distribution channel members and other stakeholders. Also, the absenteeism and turnover rates may become high that, in turn, increase costs (Caroline &
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Give me 3 to 4 topics than i will choose one of them and let you know.topic of human resorce manangment i am doing phd so need a researcg - Research Proposal Example Managers of performance appraisal, variable pay, and merit plans stress on the fact that these programs must be in form or should be constant with organizations employee practices, strategic missions or goals, and culture whether they are doing the work as organization aims. Earlier in 1982, few federal plans like those funded under the Job Training Partnership Act, were needed to build up contracts which exercised clients results measures as well as serve incentives and authorized accordingly (Yates, 1997). The Government Performance and Results Act 1993 and also the Service Efforts and Accomplishments (SEA) reporting idea of Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB, 1994) underlined the significance of performance responsibility. In late 1994, 26 federal groups signed charitable promises to convert near about 100 service agreements to performance based contracts. By 1997, federal acquisition requirements were rewritten with specific language about the requirement for performance necessities and quality benchmarks in both agreements requirements and also quality assurance. These laws and plans discussed the significance of measuring agreement performance on delivery of already agreed services as well as the feedbacks of services on users. In this project, the quasi experimental study can be used for understanding the research problem. Likert scale can be a very useful tool for completing this project. The sample size for this project can be selected as 100 people. A questionnaire will be prepared on the given topic for collecting the response of the respondents which will be answered by respondents individually. The findings will be analysed by statistical method. After completing the questionnaire section the responses of the respondents are analysed in the findings segment. The result will provide an insight into the organizational view point regarding
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Fundamentals of Finance - Essay Example Photos: Interior view of one of the master bedrooms showing a spacious area within the room. The outside view of the property showing a cultivated front yard suited with garbage cans and showing spacious distance from one property block to the next. The arrangement of the apartments allows a personal parking lot to the front and a walk through pavement connecting from the main residential interstate roads. Weblink: www.rightmove.co.uk/property-for-sale/property-41518172.html# Purchasing Price: ?59,500 The annual cash flows expected from the investment target is ?850 per calendar month as the area has competitive rental market given that area is spacious and secluded from industrial zones, hence fore, investors in this area are driven by the market valuation of the properties as well as the location which raises the expected valuation of the property to be higher than the market price. The market price of the same property along the Greater Manchester area is set at ?650 with regards to the proximity of properties and roads, shopping malls, security of the area, and demand and supply of rental properties along the same area. However the expected rental amount from this particular property is ?850 as the property is new, all its features are functional and the seclusion from the industrial areas makes the property higher valued than its market competition counterparts. Therefore, for Mr. Priddin to invest in this property, his annual cash flows are calculated as Annual Cash Flows Expected Investment Target: ?850 Per Calendar Month (PCM) = (?850 x 12) = ?10,200 The rationale of providing rental service for ?850 per month is because; after investigating the rental prices for 2 bedroom flats and apartments around the Little Lever Bolton within the Greater Manchester area, it is found out those property rentals per calendar month range from ?150-700 with regards to conditions and luxury facilities. With regards to the presence of communal gardens and the easy access to ground floor apartments, the prices for these properties are kept higher than the market price at either the threshold of ?700 PCM or above at ?1000. With Mr. Priddin expecting a 6% return on investment, the future value of the property is calculated as Perpetuity = (Rental Price x Months in a year)/r Therefore, If Mr. Priddin is to purchase this property at ?59,500 his annual returns would be Perpetuity = (850*12 months)/r = 10,200/0.06 = ?170,000 Hence fore, the present value of the future cash flows of ?170,000 is higher than the current selling price of ?59,500 and is therefore a good investment for Mr. Priddin to invest in. A) If as a landlord Mr. Priddin would like to keep this property and rent it forever raising the rent at the rate of 4%, is it advisable for Mr. Priddin to purchase this property? Then Using P = Co*(1+g)/r-g his return on investment would be calculated with regards to the purchase price of the property C0 divided by the difference between the return on in vestment and expected less the rate of rent increase per year. P = C1/r-g P = 59500/6% - 4% P = ?2,975,000 With respect to the present value of the future cash flows of ?2,975,000 the purchase price of the property is lower and therefore the property is still worth buying. The difference between the present value of the property and the future cash f
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Healthcare Organization Essay Healthcare organizations are now stepping up their strategies in improving their programs and systems. Business and marketing are collaborated to boost resources which are expected to serve as a benefit to their clients. Considering the fact that HCOs consist of social factors and societal influences, it is vital for healthcare practitioners and most importantly the management to build a stronger foundation and forecast plan for their courses of action. The advent of technology and the tight competition in the market may apparently positively of negatively impact HCOs. Hence, given the appropriate concepts and strategies armed with proper implementation of designed concepts, any HCO is most likely to survive (Longman, 2005). Simple concepts and theories of marketing and organizational behavior will help HCOs in circumstances like risk management, conflicts, human resources and other forms of the like. Analysis Communication is one of the most important fields in any organization. Given the fact that an organization is composed of individuals with varied characteristics and personalities, it is vital for these beings to have a common channel that will serve as a bridge in closing deals and team participations. Technology is perhaps the focal element in creating a robust and efficient means for communication (Mascarenhas, 1995). HCO may take advantage of this communication-related improvement by acquiring the most updated and most effective tools in running the organization. The most recent sparks of idea which proved to be of great help to healthcare practitioners are e-Prescription and e-Documentation. It paved a way for HCO to make their services become more available not only to clients within their vicinity but globally. Through the help of the internet, they are able to endorse their products and their services with just a click away. E-Documentation has helped every HCO evidently because it helped in the documentation of patient records and made these files available in a secure database which enabled patients to track their health-related records hassle-free. These developments in communication have even made HCOs all over the world collaborate and communicate efficiently and more rapidly. Earning them the all the time that they need to conduct business. As for the case of the Veterans Health Administration, the entity is fortunate enough to receive help from the state. Even though the benefits that the latter receives continue to be criticized, their organizational, planning and marketing strategy proves to be surfacing in high grounds. They see to it that their programs are not only available and accessible to a popular few but for those who are qualified for their services. Thus, they would need a little improvement with regard to how they generate resources for their facilities. Especially since they are dealing with a continuum of patients that will grow each year, they should employ updated amenities and hear the concerns of their clients. They should make their managerial actions transparent to the public and employ activities that will drive investors to donate for their cause. Conclusions and further remarks Having technology commence in a swift sense is an opportunity for healthcare organizations to make the most out of their capacities.Ã Citing the problem on VHA, they lack in communication efficiency which in essence should be improved so as to keep their clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ trust on their ability in healthcare. Healthcare organizations even so need to integrate organizational strategies especially since they are deal with the society (Karlawish, Fox, Pearlman, 2002). Financial stability is also important which is why they should learn how to implement economy-inclined policies and strategies for their philanthropically tending organization.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Comparing Eastern and Western Management Styles Nowadays, organizations exist in the competitive business environment where theres rapid development which lead to high failure rate and difficult to stand up among the strong competitive environment. Turbulent business environment caused lots of organizations to face bankruptcy; however, there are still many successful organizations which have great success through their hard work. For those successful organizations, the main objectives are to maximum their competitive advantage and increase their market shares in the market place. However, such aim cannot be accomplish without the combination of instrumental and conceptual knowledge in their management practices. In fact, every successful organization needs competent people who have the all- around knowledge of leadership. Every business has a person to lead the organization to achieve success. The ability of this person to lead is essential to sustain the performance and growth of any businesses. Such person is sometimes seen as a charismatic leader, or even a competent manager can help to growth a business by manage the employees and operation effectively. In fact, the person who was seen as a leader of the organization is mostly the CEO of that organization, the decision and every single action that the CEO take will have massive impact on every single employee within the organization. The ability of a CEO to become a leader is essential in today competitive environment since CEO which has the ability to lead and create follower can create a vision for the organization and every people in that organization will be unite to achieve that vision. Mullins (2005) and Huczynski Buchanan (2007) also pointed out the important of leadership existing in the organizations. Hence, this essay will focus on the instrumental and conceptual knowledge of leadership by comparing two leaders from different culture and situation. 1.0 Introduction to Leadership Leaders are perceived as the heart of a business which inspire the whole organization and create vision for that particular business. Leadership is no longer a new word in the organization, but it is still a controversial word that many scholars concern with, because of the role we assume it plays in the organization is crucial. And there is always lack of the competent leadership in the society. In that case, lots of authors and scholars define the term of leadership through their understanding. In 1950, through long times study, Stogdill defined the term of leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts towards goal- setting and goal achievement (cited in Huczynski Buchanan, 2007: p. 716). According to Robbins Decenzo (2005: p. 240), leader may be defined as persons with managerial and personal power who can influence others to perform actions beyond those that could be dictated by those persons formal (position) authority alone. Moreover, as leader in the recent year, their responsibility is coordinating the others and followers at most of the time. From goal focus to human behaviour focus, or from autocratic leaders to democratic leaders, they all demonstrated that leadership is more and more important for any organizations. Leaders versus Managers However, there are distinguishing between leaders and managers which we should realize before analysing the leadership within the organization. Some argue that manager is not a leader, but the roles of a manager require them to become a leader (Huczynski Buchanan, 2007). As Robbins Decenzo (2005: p. 244) suggest not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders. There are differences between a manager and a leader, manager manage but a leader lead. Robbins Decenzo (2005: p. 239) defined manager as persons whose influence on others is limited to the appointed managerial authority of their positions to reward and punish. Manager manage the rules, follow the procedures and manage everything according to the system and structure establish by the company, they manage the people by the power and authority they have, people are managed not because of the manager, it is because the authority and power that the manager have. However, some argue that leader can create follower and make people to believe without any power or authority, people are willing to follow the leader on their own behalf and will (Huczynski Buchanan, 2007). Thus, there are no clear line that separate a manager and a leader, a CEO can have the characteristic of both which make them more competences to manage and lead the company to a greater success. It is undeniable that in today competitive environment, both leading and managing role are critical success factor for a CEO to have in order to achieve greater achievement (Kyle, 2004; Kotter, 2001). As De Wit Meyer (2004: p. 497) argue, Every leader must perform some managerial functions, even though every manager cannot take a leadership role. Wit Meyer (2010) argues that: the leader controls the allocation of the attention focus of the participants in the organization in any organization where managers dominate, structured rules tend to influence the allocation of attention, but the leader will try to capture the attention focus of the participants so that their attention is allocated to the areas that the leader considers important. Leaders to Discuss and Compare This paper will discover two successful leaders Jeff Bezos from the west and Akio Toyoda from the east by comparing their leadership style and other aspects related to leadership in order to discover the differences of leadership in different culture and background. Jeff Bezos from the West Jeff Bezos is the founder, president, chief executive officer and chairman of the board of Amazon.com (New York Daily News, 2008). He founded Amazon.com in 1994, and launched in 1995. As a founder and CEO of Amazon.com, Jeff Bezos is a pioneer in e-commerce (Spiro, 2009). As shown in Fair (2002): At the end of 1999, Amazon had raked in over a billion dollars in sales Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ in 2001, Amazon reported a fiscal loss of $1.4 billion, and had laid off over 200 workers in the last year Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Instead of giving up, Bezos had an idea: recruit other companies to sell their products online through Amazon as well. The idea worked. Companies such as Target, Toys R Us, Old Navy, and many others have agreed to sell their items through Amazon. Although Amazon is not directly responsible for inventory through these companies, they do get part of the sales, creating a profit for all involved. Since the inception of the idea, Amazon is now back on its feet and remains one of the most popular online vendors in the world today. Akio Toyoda from the East According to Los Angeles Times, 2009: Toyota tapped Akio Toyoda, grandson of the Japanese automakers founder, as president of Toyota Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ The U.S.-educated Toyoda, 52, is the first founding family member to take the helm at Japans No. 1 automaker in 14 years. He promised a reaffirmation of the companys core principles, such as valuing ideas from the ranks a management approach called kaizen, [also known as Toyota Production System] that has made Toyotas production methods famous in industry circles around the world. 2.0 Comparison of Leadership Style and Culture 2.1 Participative Leadership Style and Charismatic Theory Jeff Bezos is more like a charismatic leader that practiced participative leadership style. Although he faced some obstacle in the early years, he managed to overcome the entire problem and bring Amazon to become one of the most innovative companies in the e-commerce industry. He launched Amazon.com and being persistent in persuading his aspiration, one of the characteristic of leader as describe by Mullins (2005). Jeff Bezos has the criteria as a charismatic leader as he has the ability to create a vision for the future and make everyone within Amazon believe in his visions that make him a charismatic leader. A vision should create enthusiasm, bringing energy and commitment to the organization (Robbins Decenzo, 2005: p. 246), while Ingbretsen (n. d.) argues that a charismatic leader has the ability to articulate a vision that touches an emotional chord with an audience. Jeff Bezos manages to lead people by making them believe that his innovative idea of online bookstore will be a s uccess. He had prove his vision are achievable and people believe in him since he lead everyone in the company to work hard and achieve the goal and objective to become the innovative player within the e-commerce industry, and people believe in him since he managed to turn the situation of Amazon around. As Robbins Decenzo (2005: p. 247) suggest, Charisma leadership appears to be most appropriate when the followers task has an ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty. However, based on the other perspective that goes against charismatic theory, Raelin (2003) suggest that follower will follow the charismatic leader is just because the publicity make the leader look so powerful and great. The fancy packaging with the help from media had made the charismatic leader look like a legend, a myth that everyone believe is true. Levesque McNeil (2003, p. 215) strongly argue that as followers interact, they begin to define a social reality of leadership representing special mythical qualities endowed only by very special people. Raelin believes that followers are predisposed to look for a cause and a leader for whom they can become true believers (2003, p. 66). The critics for charismatic leader are that without massive publicity, there will be no charismatic leader; people will not recognize that leader at all. If Jeff Bezos is not good at making himself high profile by attending conferences, posting his own comment or opinions on the web, attending public events, accept a lot of interview and so on which make him highly expose to the media and make publicity for himself and the company as well, there will be no quoted as a charismatic leader for him. He was being quoted as a charismatic leader as people know what he done through the media and all the fancy publicity which make him look as great as a hero. There are many leaders around the world, even if we do not know their names or what great things that they have done, it didnt make them less an effective or great leader. Charismatic is not the only recognition for a great leader, people recognize the leader that they respect within their heart, even without the media spreading that lea der legend, people will still respect that leader, even he or she is not a charismatic leader. Indeed, some of the most significant CEO in the history of the visionary companies did not have the personality traits of the archetypal high-profile, charismatic leader (Forster, 2005, p. 30). 2.2 Autocratic and Collaborative Leadership Style On the other hand, Akio Toyoda practiced the autocratic leadership style and until now, the belief of autocratic leadership style still remain within the organization and most managerial level personnel practiced the same autocratic leadership style to manage their people. The main reason autocratic is effective at Toyota mostly based on the power-cultural that Japan always have. Akio Toyoda as president of Toyota is reaffirming its commitment to collaborative culture and methods (Rosen, 2009). Although being autocratic, Akio Toyoda practiced Genchi genbutsu or see it for yourself fits squarely into collaborative culture and methods of Toyota (Liker, 2004). As leaders, Akio Toyoda suggests that manager needed to hold themselves accountable for all their decisions, which they required their people to execute very quickly. Collaborative leadership and autocratic style of Akio Toyoda doesnt make him stay away from their unique kaizen production method, but to collaborate more with the implementation of lean production plant which was known as the Toyota Production System (Liker, 2004). Toyota Production System distinguished from its competitors and hard to duplicate since it is underpinned by just-in-time delivery (JIT); product quality; employee flexibility and the elimination of waste. This unique lean production system was buttressed by principle such as teamwork, continuous improvement, quality circles and employee development. 2.3 Traits Theory Although both leaders practiced different leadership style, they have their own personality traits that made them a great leader. First of all, based on the instrumental knowledge, the traits theory also call traits- spotting is argued even in recent years, for the reason of that leader is nature born or make. Although, there are thousands of successful leaders existing in the world, all of them have their own traits which can be summarize as six leadership traits including ambition and energy, desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence and job- relevant knowledge. Hence, instrumental knowledge indicated that the traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader through six leadership traits (Robbins Decenzo, 2005: p. 256). However, not every leader has all of the personal traits instead of maybe some of them. And lots of examples tell us that leader with different traits also can obtain successful in every area. For instance, Jeff Bezos a nd Akio Toyoda have total different characteristics and personal traits, but both of them acquired big successful in the business world. However, in contrast with the instrumental knowledge, the conceptual knowledge holds that it is difficult to identify whether any people is naturally born with trait, or they might just gain those ability through their life experience and learn from it. Besides, different countries which have different culture will need leader with different characteristic. Thus, every leader which is required in different country will need to have different trait. For example, people from the Western countries and people from the Eastern country will have different culture or ways of doing things (Hofstede, n. d.). Thus, different leadership style need to be implement in different countries, if that particular countries are afraid of uncertainty and have a high level of avoidance for confusion, such as China, Japan and others, the Autocratic style might be more appropriate. Therefore, there is no one universally accepted set of traits for all leaders. Every single individual are different, their abi lity and skills, knowledge and experience will be different as well and they will be accepted in the mind of different people which appreciate their traits. 2.4 Behavioural Theory The most popular behavior style theory should be Blake and Moutons Grid which is based on the idea that different in leadership approach are a function of concern for people and concern for production emerged during the 1960s (Doyle Smith, 2001). According to behavioral theory, it is easy to find out which style the leaders are belonging to by identifying the behavior. For example, leadership styles are another important aspect from the management process where different country will have different management style. Huczynski Buchanan (2007) suggest that leader cannot use the same leadership style in their various locations around the world due to the cultural and behavior differences. Japanese leadership style differs from those in the U.S and the most common is that Japanese (Akio Toyoda) and U.S (Jeff Bezos) leader have a basically different philosophy of managing people. For example, Jeff Bezos is heavily individual-orientated and will praised individual with great performance in front of everyone. However, a Japanese saying is, the nail that sticks out gets hammered down which mean that no individual should stand out from the group. Giving out individual reward system in Japan could embarrass a Japanese worker and is not accepted at Japan. Western motivation models are culturally individualistic, applying them to a collectivistic culture is probably inappropriate. As Fujisawa, co-founder of Honda Motor Company stated, Japanese and American management is 95% the same and differs in all important aspects (Keeley, 2001, p. 18; Erez Gati, 2004). U.S leadership style is not appropriate at Japan where the Japanese employees are unable to accept or tolerate participative and individual orientated leadership style. Mintzberg Westly (2001) suggest that Japanese worker dislike emphasize on individual performance and more toward group-orientation, and will felt appreciate if their leader can pay some attention to them at work and also concern a little bit about their personal life, like what Akio Toyoda did as a leader at Toyota. Akio Toyoda was more willing to allow poor performance to continue for a time so that those who were involved would learn from their mistake and to harvest loyalty among employees. The example above clearly showed that there are clearly different ways to work in different culture and it is important for leader to understand such differences and manage the employees based on their own culture. Huczynski Buchanan (2007) argues that leadership styles vary from company to company. There are many different styles of leadership that can bring success to an organization but organization has to make sure that their leadership style is right for the business. Which leadership styles to practice depend on many factors, but the most determine factors that has the biggest influence on management style will definitely be culture and behavior. 2.5 Contingency Theory and Hofstedes Five Cultural Dimensions Fiedler and his associates bring out the contingency theory which combines leadership style and situation during 1960s. In Fielders model, the good performance of the group depends on the interaction of the leadership style and the favorable situation, and a good leadership must be flexible and adaptable in order to appropriate different situation within the organization no matter how hard or soft situation (Huczynski Buchanan, 2007). Thus, there is no single style of leadership which can match to all situations; even the most effective leadership behavior should depend on the situational factors. Hofstede (n. d.) commented that: Western countries have characteristics of high individualism, medium uncertainty avoidance, high masculinity, low to medium power distance, and low long-term orientation. [Thus, based on the situation, it is best for Jeff Bezos to practiced participative leadership style in USA. On the other hand, eastern countries such as Japan] was found to have characteristics of low individualism, high uncertainty avoidance, high masculinity, high power distance, and high long-term orientation Hence, it is more appropriate for Akio Toyoda to practiced autocratic leadership style to suit the cultural and situation at Japan. In order to compare the different culture of USA and Japan, Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions of USA and Japan will be as the following (Hofstede, n. d.): Source: Geert Hofstede, Cultural Dimensions, www.geert-hofstede.com 3.0 Conclusion In conclusion, it is undeniable that Jeff Bezos is a great CEO which made Amazon a famous and innovative online company globally. However, it is too narrow to believe that charismatic leader is everything since Akio Toyoda is still a great leader without being a charismatic leader. Jeff Bezos is a charismatic leader, it might be his style to be one, but charismatic leader style is not suitable for everyone or in different culture, background and country, it might not be essential. Therefore, there is no one universal accepted leadership style that is the most effective one. Great leader are not only charismatic leader, anyone who was seen as a great leader, no matter what his leadership style was, is nothing less an effective leader if they were not quoted as one. Thus, culture differences play a significant role whereby leaders must consistently aware of the cultural change and react to the situation in order to lead their staff with the most appropriate type of leadership. Without acknowledging to the aforesaid, one will never be a good leader.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Chris Nguyen Xxxxxx Xxxxxx 27 December 2013 Socialization and Stigmatization of HIV/ AIDS in Developing and Developed Societies: A Comparative Survey of Selected Recent Literature Introduction In the last thirty years the social perception of HIV/ AIDS has changed dramatically in the public conscious. The disease itself has shifted from being a baffling virus in the 1960s and 1970s, to the offensively termed Ã¢â¬Å"Gay-related immune deficiencyÃ¢â¬ or GRID, to finally being termed the Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the 1980s. Despite scientific advances in modern medicine, the perception of the illness is still highly sexualized and carries a deeply negative stigma, especially in economically developing societies. In this paper I will analyze a selection of current literature to gain understanding of how HIV/ AIDS first came into existence and how it was initially perceived in the public conscious. From this same pool of recent literature I will examine sub-Saharan African societies, specifically cases in Tanzania and South Africa, as well as the socio-politic al context surrounding HIV/ AIDS governance in present-day China. In contrast, I will also draw from an article that discusses stigma experienced by HIV-positive women living in Canada- a developed society. Despite the reams of scientific literature on the subject, public consciousness about living with HIV/ AIDS and preventing its transmission in developing and developed societies remains low. Cultural and Socio-political Perceptions of HIV Infection Modern perceptions of HIV and AIDS are driven by archaic and outdated social stigma that has existed since the discovery ... ...gical sense. Obviously people observe different cultures and norms across all of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s societies. In order to address a common problem across uncommon environments, problem-solvers must seek-out culturally appropriate means and methods for confronting any given issue. HIV and AIDS- related stigma is a problem that has plagued social society since the discovery of the illness. Even the most developed societies like Canada are not immune to prejudice and bias. As such, much responsibility falls upon educated people to share the importance of sexual and reproductive health with those who may not have access to the same level of quality education. While history has already written bias and stigma into the lives of those who have lived and continue to live with HIV or AIDS, the phenomenon of bias can be understood. And with understanding comes the hope for change.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Hood: slang for neighborhood or black area/life. Before 1991 this concept of hood life was never before portrayed or looked into until John Singleton produced the black social drama Boyz N the Hood. This is the first film by a black director that actually goes deep inside the ghetto or inner city. Singleton carefully directs this film so that it appears to mirror the real world Ã¢â¬Å"having value as a kind of anthropological study of an unfamiliar way of life'; (Thompson 2). Set in lower-middle-class, predominately black, south central Los Angeles, a neighborhood where constant gunshots regularly interrupt study time and the sound of police helicopters flying above is a familiar tune, Boyz N the Hood is basically the story of three teenage friends coming of age in black urban America. It is their story of street life where friendship, pain, danger, and love combine to form their harsh reality. Unlike previous films Singleton addresses issues that relate more to the younger generation of that time. Tre, the main character is obviously the one who is on the right track toward adulthood. He has a job, plans to go to college and, Ã¢â¬Å"most important (as writer-director Singleton sees it, at any rate) he lives with his father'; (Tornquist 1). Brothers Doughboy and Ricky, on the other hand, live with their mother and are not good role models. Doughboy drives a fancy car but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to have a job, and has been in and out of prison. Ricky does a litt...